President-elect Donald Trump has yet to move into the White House, but already many Americans are focused on what it'll take to get him out.
Google searches for "how to impeach a president" went up by nearly 5000 percent in the hours following Trump's upset victory. Unsurprisingly perhaps, America's Heartland wasn't doing most of the Googling: The top five states that saw the highest percentage increase in searches were Hawaii, California, Oregon, Washington, and Colorado.
So, what exactly would it take to impeach President-elect Donald Trump once he takes over office?
1) What it means to impeach a president, and who has the power to do so.
The ability to impeach a president sits with the House of Representatives, and appears to be the ultimate check and balance on executive powers. According to the Congressional Research Service (CRS), the Constitution gives the House the right to impeach—to formally approve allegations of wrongdoing and remove from office, known as articles of impeachment— any sitting president, vice-president, or head of a federal agency. But the road to impeachment is a long and convoluted process that can take months. It requires cooperation from both houses of Congress, which will be controlled by Republicans when Trump takes office in January.
2) Congress has a very limited history of impeaching presidents.
The House has only impeached two presidents in its history: Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton. Both were acquitted. President Richard Nixon resigned in August 1974, before Congress could impeach him. Calls from the public and some in Congress to impeach former President George W. Bush and President Barack Obama didn't shape out. John Boehner (R-Ohio) while he was Speaker of the House and John McCain (R-Ariz.) said an impeachment drive for Obama would be a waste of time.
Professor Michael J. Gerhardt, author of The Federal Impeachment Process, which looks at the legal and constitutional issues that arose during Clinton's and other impeachment trials, says impeaching the president can be an arduous task and not the best way to handle Congress' problems with a president.
“After the impeachment trial for President Clinton,” Gerhardt said in an email to the Daily Dot, “the perceptions among some people were that impeachment was not a good mechanism for partisan retaliation against a president, and that impeachment was not a good mechanism for handling presidential misconduct—that it was too cumbersome and the thresholds too high to work effectively against a president, particularly a popular one.”
3) Some legal experts believe there is already grounds to impeach Trump.
University of Utah S.J. Quinney College of Law professor Christopher L. Peterson believes there's sufficient evidence to impeach Trump on charges of fraud and racketeering related to Trump University.
“In the final weeks of the 2016 presidential campaign, Donald J. Trump faces three lawsuits accusing him of fraud and racketeering,” Peterson writes in a September 2016 paper arguing the legal justification for impeaching Trump. “These ongoing cases focus on a series of wealth seminars called ‘Trump University,’ which collected over $40 million from consumers seeking to learn Trump’s real estate investing strategies. Although these consumer protection cases are civil proceedings, the underlying legal elements in several counts that plaintiffs seek to prove run parallel to the legal elements of serious crimes under both state and federal law.”
But even if wrongdoing exists, there must also be a political desire to impeach Trump, as well as consensus from both Houses of Congress.
“The big problem for Democrats is, of course, that they don't control either chamber of Congress, much less have the [two-thirds majority] in the Senate necessary to convict,” said Josh Chafetz, a constitutional law professor at Cornell University, in an email to the Daily Dot. “Any impeachment would have to have the full support of Republican leadership.”
In short, House Speaker Paul Ryan (R-Ohio) and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.) would have to be on board with a Trump impeachment, and they'd have to get a lot of their fellow Republicans to agree with them.
4) The House would first have to decide the grounds on which the impeachment is based. And then vote on it.According to CRS, the president must be found to have engaged in "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors" to be impeached. The House usually launches a formal investigation into the president's alleged misconduct, which they must vote on to authorize.
The entire House must then agree upon the "articles of impeachment," or the specific justifications for impeachment. In the case of Clinton, the House approved two articles of impeachment, charging him with lying under oath to a federal grand jury and obstructing justice.
According to CRS, the categories for impeachment grounds are:
- Improperly exceeding or abusing the powers of office
- Behavior incompatible with the function and the purpose of the office
- Misusing the office for an improper purpose or personal gain
It's up to the House Judiciary Committee (currently chaired by Rep. Bob Goodlatte (R-Va.) to decide what the articles of impeachment will be. This is usually after weeks of hearings and reviewing evidence into the president's alleged misconduct. The entire House of Representatives then must vote to approve the articles of impeachment.
If a simple majority of the House approves the articles, it then goes to the Senate. A simple majority would require a total of 218 votes in the house. In 2017, the House will have a total of 239 Republicans and 192 Democrats.
In the case of a Trump impeachment, every single one of the House Democrats and 26 House Republicans must sign-on. And that's just the beginning.
5) The Senate would then conduct impeachment proceedings
After the House approves the articles of impeachment, it's up to the Senate to decide if it wishes to hold an impeachment trial. The Senate then sets a date for an impeachment trial, during which the chief justice of the Supreme Court would preside and the president would testify.
For a look at a real-life impeachment trial, see below:
6) The Senate would then have to vote on convicting the president
For the president to be removed from office, two-thirds of the Senate must vote to convict the official. In other words, a total of 67 "aye" votes on Trump's impeachment.
Republicans will hold at least 51 seats in the incoming Senate, with Democrats holding at least 48 seats; one seat, from Louisiana, won't be decided until a December runoff vote because the race was too close to call.
Either way that race goes, it's nowhere near the supermajority Democrats would need to kick Trump out of the White House on their own.
Correction: This article originally stated that President Andrew Jackson was impeached by the House. It was actually President Andrew Johnson.